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Birth to Three Years
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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF COMMON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTURBANCES

Preschool

 Birth to ThreeYears Old

( Physical development in black, emotional in blue)

 

Newborn: rough, random, uncoordinated,

reflexive movement

3 mo: head at 90 degree  angle, uses arms to

prop; visually track through midline

5 mo: purposeful grasp;  roll over; head lag

disappears; reaches for

objects; transfer objects from hand to hand;

plays with feet; exercises body by

stretching, moving; touch genitals, rock on

stomach for pleasure

 

4-5 mo: coos, curious and interested in

environment

 

5 mo: responsive to social stimuli; facial

expressions of emotion

 

6 mo: babbles and imitates sounds

 

7 mo: sits in “tripod”; push head and torso up off

the floor; support weight on legs; “raking” with hands

9 mo: gets to and from sitting; crawls, pulls to

standing; stooping and recovering; finger/thumb

opposition; eye/hand coordination, but

no hand preference

 

9 mo: discriminates  between parents and

others; trial and error problem solving

 

9 mo: socially interactive; plays

games (i.e., pattycake with

caretakers)

 

11 mo: stranger anxiety; separation

anxiety; solitary play

 

12 mo: walking

 

12 mo: beginning of symbolic thinking;

points to pictures in books in response to

verbal cue; object permanence; some may use

single words; receptive language

more advanced than  expressive language

 

15 mo: more complex motor skills

 

15 mo: learns through imitating complex

behaviors; knows objects are used for

specific purposes

 

2 yrs: learns to climb up stairs first, then down

Sensori-motor: physically

explores environment to learn about it;

repeats movements to master them, which

also stimulates brain cell development

 

 

2 yrs: 2 word phrases;

uses more complex toys and understands

sequence of putting toys, puzzles together

 Attachment: baby settles when parent comforts;

toddlerseeks comfort from parent, safe-base

exploration

 

 

2 yr: imitation, parallel and symbolic, play

 

 

 

Three years old: 

Rule of Three: 3 yrs,

3 ft, 33 lbs.

Weight gain: 4-5 lbs

per year

Growth: 3-4 inches

per year

Physically active, can’t sit still for

Long Clumsy throwing

Balls Refines complex skills: hopping,

jumping, climbing, running, ride “big

wheels” and tricycles Improving fine

motor skills and eye-hand

coordination: cut with scissors,

draw shapes

3– 3 ス yr: most toilet trained

Ego-centric, illogical, magical

Thinking Explosion of vocabulary;

learning syntax, grammar;

understood by 75% of people by age 3

Poor understanding of time, value, sequence of events

Vivid imaginations; some difficulty separating fantasy

from reality Accurate memory, but more

suggestible than older children

Primitive drawing, can’t represent themselves in

drawing till age 4 Don’t realize others have

different perspective

May misinterpret visual cues of

Emotions Receptive language better

than expressive till age 4

Play:

Cooperative, imaginative, may involve fantasy

and imaginary friends, takes turns

in games

Develops gross and fine motor

skills; social skills; experiment with

social roles; reduces fears

Wants to please adults

Development of conscience: incorporates

Parental prohibitions; feels

guilty when disobedient;

simplistic idea of “good and bad”

behavior

Curious about his and other’s bodies, may

masturbate

No sense of privacy

Primitive, stereotypic understanding of

gender roles

 

 

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